A case study depicts a research strategy and empirical investigation on a specific subject or phenomenon within its real context. A formal research method can produce a case study. Case studies seek to prove a thesis or principle following research into the progress of a specific subject over a definite period.
In conducting a case study, the researcher considers a particular individual, group or scenario. They then make observations based on the subject of interest then analyzes the collected data to come up with conclusions that they present to an audience. They are often utilized in social sciences but could apply in many different fields such as health and medicine as in the example given above.
There are several benefits to using the case study research design. Case studies allow the researcher to make observations about a phenomenon in real-life settings. It does not depend on laboratory conditions or the ability of the researchers to control several aspects of the study. The chance to study the phenomenon in its unaltered context enables researchers to obtain more unbiased data and reach more objective conclusions.
Case studies provide the researcher with an opportunity to use different types of data collection tools resulting in more comprehensive data for analysis. The conclusions reached during a case study are based on empirical data and thus contribute towards the advancement of knowledge. Focusing on a single entity makes it possible for the researcher to conduct an in-depth and more comprehensive study than would be the case where the focus is split across different settings.