Why cant science answer questions about the existence of a supernatural being?.
Imagine that you read a study of the effects of exercise on the prevalence of heart disease in women ages 35 to 65. Although you believe the experiment was carried out in an appropriate manner, you still do not believe the results. You decide to conduct your own study to see for yourself. To determine if the results of the first study are valid, should you do everything the same way as the first study or would it be better if you changed several of the variables, such as studying men, or looking at different age groups? Explain your choice, and explain the consequences of the other choice. (1/2 pts)
2. Why can’t science answer questions about the existence of a supernatural being? (1/2 pts)
3. A scientific hypothesis must have two very important features. What are they? Provide details. (1/2 pts)
Use the following to answer questions 4-7.
To test the effectiveness of a new drug designed to improve concentration in children with hyperactivity disorder, a researcher divided 100 children with hyperactivity disorder into two groups of 50 children each. First, both groups received a test to determine the length of time they could study a word list before their attention wandered. Then, group 1 received the new drug while group 2 received a sugar pill. One hour later, both groups took the concentration test again. (2 pts)
4. Which group is the experimental group and which is the control group?
5. Why did group 2 receive a sugar pill instead of simply not taking anything at all?
6. What is the independent variable in this study?
7. What is the dependent variable in this study?
8. What is a placebo treatment and why is it important in a properly designed experiment? (1/2 pts)
9. Describe the features of an experimental group versus a control group—for example, in an experiment whose hypothesis is “consuming coffee improves memory.” (1/2 pts)
10. Explain why evolution is not dismissed as “just a theory” with reference to the Theory of Evolution. (1/2 pts)
11. Two studies were conducted to determine if a new drug was effective at reducing tumor size in patients with lung cancer. One study examined men and found that the drug reduced tumor size by 45%; the other study, conducted on women, concluded that the drug had no effect. Is it possible that the results of both studies are correct? Why or why not? (1/2 pts)
12. Researchers ran three clinical trials, each using a different one of the following populations: • 250 non-smoking men ages 18 to 25 • 500 smoking and non-smoking men and women ages 20 to 55 • 300 smoking women ages 45 to 60
Would you expect the results of these three experiments to be the same? Explain. (1/2 pts)
13. Why does having a large sample size give more reliable results? (1/2 pts)
14. Differentiate between a simple correlation and causation. Provide an example of each. (1/2 pts)